|Red Hat Linux 7.3: The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide
|Chapter 11. Shell Prompt Basics
In Linux, pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command.
Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier. There are plenty of options available with ls, but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them?
View the contents of the /etc directory.
ls -al /etc
How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen?
One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. Known as a pager, less allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time.
Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands.
ls -al /etc | less
Now we can view the contents of one /etc screen
at a time. To move forward a screen, press
To read startup messages more closely, at a shell prompt, type
dmesg | less. You will be able to read the file
one screen at a time. To move forward, press the
Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. Type:
grep coffee sneakers.txt | lpr
This will print every line in the sneakers.txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in the Section called The grep Command).
The main difference between more and less is that more only lets you move forward through a file and less lets you move backward and forward.
List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more.
ls -al /etc | more